Compiling Net-SNMP v5.6.1 on Ubuntu 22.04

A colleague wanted to learn fuzzing and they picked SNMP as the protocol they wanted to target. The plan was to find the oldest version of Net-SNMP we can find to fuzz so they’re more likely to find a crash. We checked out a release from 2000, but couldn’t get the configure script to work, then jumped to Net-SNMP v5.6.1, which is still a very old version of Net-SNMP from 2011. It didn’t compile immediately but I felt that it could be coaxed into compiling.

I managed to get this version to compile, but it wasn’t straightforward. The first thing we need to do is compile a version of OpenSSL that is from around 2011 as the API has changed enough to break things, and it was necessary to disable some features in Net-SNMP we didn’t need. I should note that although I have got this to compile and I can run “snmpget -v”, I have not tested this build in any meaningful way so I may not work.

The first thing to do is set a variable to hold the path of where we will install everything, this is used as the –prefix argument passed to autoconf.

PREFIX_DIR=$HOME/snmp/_output

OpenSSL

Let’s grab a copy of the OpenSSL source code and checkout a version from around 2011.

git clone https://github.com/openssl/openssl
git checkout OpenSSL_1_0_0c

Now we need to configure the build, this is pretty simple, we just set the prefix and use the “linux-generic64” profile.

./Configure --prefix=$PREFIX_DIR linux-generic64

Next we compile using make. I deliberately did not use a parallel build here, I found even setting “-j2” breaks one of the linking steps.

make
make install_sw

Net-SNMP

We can now build Net-SNMP, first step is to grab a copy of the source code. We get it from Github, just as we did with OpenSSL.

git clone https://github.com/net-snmp/net-snmp
git checkout v5.6.1

This time we have a more complicated configure setup. The first thing to note is we use “–with-openssl” to point autoconf at the OpenSSL we just built. The next thing to note is we disable Perl and Python moudules, this is because they also will not work with the newest version so those packages.

./configure --with-openssl=$PREFIX_DIR \
	    --with-defaults \
	    --without-perl-modules \
	    --disable-embedded-perl \
	    --without-python-modules \
	    --disable-shared \
	    --enable-static \
	    --prefix=$PREFIX_DIR

Next we can compile using make, this time we can use parallel build. We set LDFLAGS here to force the linker to chose the OpenSSL we built, and not the system version.

make -j$(nproc) LDFLAGS="-L${PREFIX_DIR}/lib"
make install

All done! We have a built Net-SNMP.

     

Trying Out Emacs 29

GNU Emacs is a free and open-source text editor, it’s known for its extensibility and the ability to customize almost every aspect of its functionality through the use of Emacs Lisp code. I first started using it many years ago, around 2007 I think. After a hiatus of a few years, I have got back into using it as my daily driver.

There’s a new major release of GNU Emacs in development, and everyone is raving about it. It has got a lot of interesting new features like Eglot, and tree-sitter. In this blog post I will download the source code from Git, and compile to to try out the new features.

git clone -b emacs-29 https://git.savannah.gnu.org/git/emacs.git

If you want to follow this blog post and get similar results, then I compiled the following Git commit: 63cdbd986bb8f841717e2d813df6f75b6b02cf8b. You can checkout this version with Git, but this is optional, you can just download the Emacs 29 release when it comes out and it should work the same. Just skip the “autogen” part as the release tarball should include the “configure” script.

$ git checkout 63cdbd986bb8f841717e2d813df6f75b6b02cf8b

We need to ensure we have all the dependencies that are needed to compile Emacs, I’m using Ubuntu 22.04 and have installed the following packages using APT.

  • build-essential
  • libxaw7-dev, librsvg2-dev, libjpeg-dev, libpng-dev. libxpm-dev, libgif-dev
  • libgtk-3-dev
  • libgnutls28-dev
  • texinfo
  • libgccjit-11-dev
  • libjansson-dev
  • libsystemd-dev
  • libncurses-dev
  • libacl1-dev
  • libwebkit2gtk-4.0-dev (if you want xwidgets support)
  • libtree-sitter-dev

Run the following command to install all the required dependencies for Ubuntu.

$ sudo apt install -y build-essential libxaw7-dev librsvg2-dev libjpeg-dev libpng-dev libxpm-dev libgif-dev libgtk-3-dev libgnutls28-dev texinfo libgccjit-11-dev libjansson-dev libsystemd-dev libncurses-dev libacl1-dev libtree-sitter-dev

The build system that GNU Emacs uses to build from source is called GNU Autotools. If you don’t knwo, then GNU Autotools is a set of tools that is used to build, install, and manage software packages on Unix-like systems. It consists of three main components: Autoconf, Automake, and Libtool. Autoconf is used to create portable configure scripts that can be used to set up a package’s build system. Automake is used to generate Makefiles that are used to build the package. Libtool is used to create portable libraries that can be used in multiple environments. Together, these tools help to automate the process of building, installing, and managing software packages, making it easier for developers to create software that can be easily compiled and installed on a wide range of systems.

As I’m compiling source I pulled from Git, there is not configure script, so the next step is to run Autogen to create the configure script.

$ ./autogen.sh

Nex we run the configure script, this will check the build environment to ensure all the necessary dependencies are present, and then create a Makefile we can run. I have used “–prefix” here to control where Emacs gets installed.

$ ./configure --prefix=$HOME/.local --with-native-compilation

If the build environment is ok, the compiler is there, all the dependencies are there, ect.. Then, this is the summary of features you should see. If something is wrong then you will get errors from configure.

Configured for 'x86_64-pc-linux-gnu'.

  Where should the build process find the source code?    .
  What compiler should emacs be built with?               gcc -g3 -O2
  Should Emacs use the GNU version of malloc?             no
    (The GNU allocators don't work with this system configuration.)
  Should Emacs use a relocating allocator for buffers?    no
  Should Emacs use mmap(2) for buffer allocation?         no
  What window system should Emacs use?                    x11
  What toolkit should Emacs use?                          GTK3
  Where do we find X Windows header files?                Standard dirs
  Where do we find X Windows libraries?                   Standard dirs
  Does Emacs use -lXaw3d?                                 no
  Does Emacs use -lXpm?                                   yes
  Does Emacs use -ljpeg?                                  yes
  Does Emacs use -ltiff?                                  yes
  Does Emacs use a gif library?                           yes -lgif
  Does Emacs use a png library?                           yes -lpng16 -lz
  Does Emacs use -lrsvg-2?                                yes
  Does Emacs use -lwebp?                                  no
  Does Emacs use -lsqlite3?                               yes
  Does Emacs use cairo?                                   yes
  Does Emacs use -llcms2?                                 yes
  Does Emacs use imagemagick?                             no
  Does Emacs use native APIs for images?                  no
  Does Emacs support sound?                               yes
  Does Emacs use -lgpm?                                   no
  Does Emacs use -ldbus?                                  yes
  Does Emacs use -lgconf?                                 no
  Does Emacs use GSettings?                               yes
  Does Emacs use a file notification library?             yes -lglibc (inotify)
  Does Emacs use access control lists?                    yes -lacl
  Does Emacs use -lselinux?                               yes
  Does Emacs use -lgnutls?                                yes
  Does Emacs use -lxml2?                                  yes
  Does Emacs use -lfreetype?                              yes
  Does Emacs use HarfBuzz?                                yes
  Does Emacs use -lm17n-flt?                              no
  Does Emacs use -lotf?                                   no
  Does Emacs use -lxft?                                   no
  Does Emacs use -lsystemd?                               yes
  Does Emacs use -ljansson?                               yes
  Does Emacs use -ltree-sitter?                           yes
  Does Emacs use the GMP library?                         yes
  Does Emacs directly use zlib?                           yes
  Does Emacs have dynamic modules support?                yes
  Does Emacs use toolkit scroll bars?                     yes
  Does Emacs support Xwidgets?                            no
  Does Emacs have threading support in lisp?              yes
  Does Emacs support the portable dumper?                 yes
  Does Emacs support legacy unexec dumping?               no
  Which dumping strategy does Emacs use?                  pdumper
  Does Emacs have native lisp compiler?                   yes
  Does Emacs use version 2 of the X Input Extension?      yes
  Does Emacs generate a smaller-size Japanese dictionary? no

Now the build environment is ready to build Emacs. Let’s run make to do the build. We pass “-j” to parallelise the build if multiple cores are available.

$ make -j$(nproc)

This step takes a long time, be patient. Once it’s finished we can run “make install” to install Emacs.

$ make install

Aswesome, so now we have GNU Emacs compiled, and installed so let’s try it out.

$ ~/.local/bin/emacs --init-directory=/tmp

This was our first opportunity to try out a new feature, the “–init-directory” argument. It allows us to control where Emacs looks for “.emacs.d”, by setting it to “/tmp” we prevent Emacs 29 from loading my configuration.

Now it’s time to play with Emacs 29…

           

Managing Multiple Versions of Visual Studio

In my previous post, I described how to build an old version of GNU Make for Windows. While working on that I wanted to be able to test out different versions of Visual Studio to see if it builds successfully. Quickly switching between versions of Visual Studio was difficult so I created a batch file to help make it a lot easier.

This script takes a single argument that specifies which version of visual studio you want to set up and it then calls the appropriate vsvars32.bat file for that version of Visual Studio.

@echo off

if "%1" == "vs4" goto vs4
if "%1" == "vs6" goto vs6
if "%1" == "vs2003" goto vs2003

goto argerror

:vs4
pushd C:\msdev\bin
call vcvars32 x86
popd
goto done


:vs6
pushd C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio\VC98\Bin
call vcvars32
popd
goto done


:vs2003
pushd "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Common7\Tools\"
call vsvars32.bat
popd
goto done

:argerror
echo no Visual Studio version specified!
echo usage: setupenv [version]
echo    where version is one of the following: vs4, vs6, vs2003

:done

             

Compiling Old Versions of GNU Make for Windows

I needed to build GNU Make v3.8 for Windows, turns out that this is not straightforward and I needed to patch the build script to get it to correctly build. GNU Make 3.8 is a very old version of make, the release note dates back to 2002.

The first issue is it needs an old version of Visual C++, trying to build using VS 2019 you will get a lot of warnings about deprecated flags. Reading the README.W32 file it mentions MSVC 5.x and MSVC 6.x. I opted for MSVC 6 which I happened to have a copy of in a Windows 2000 VM.

The first issue we need to resolve is a linking error caused by a missing library.

Looking through the build output we can see that it cannot find "config.h", which prevents the "subproc.lib" library from compiling which subsequently causes the error we just saw.

C:\BUILD\xxx\make-3.80\w32\subproc>cl.exe /nologo /MT /W3 /GX /Z7 /YX /Od /I .. /I . /I ../include /I ../.. /D WIN32 /D
WINDOWS32 /D _DEBUG /D _WINDOWS /FR.\WinDebug/ /Fp.\WinDebug/subproc.pch /Fo.\WinDebug/ /c sub_proc.c
sub_proc.c
sub_proc.c(9) : fatal error C1083: Cannot open include file: 'config.h': No such file or directory

The reason that "config.h" does not exist is that the file is not created by the build script. The line in the build script that creates it doesn’t get run, this is because there is a “+” at the beginning of the line which stops this line from running.

set make=gnumake
+if not exist config.h copy config.h.W32 config.h
cd w32\subproc

Removing the plus at the beginning of the line allows "subproc.lib" to be compiled and linked, but we still get linker errors.

C:\BUILD\xxx\make-3.80>echo WinRel\pathstuff.obj  1>>link.rel

C:\BUILD\xxx\make-3.80>echo off
"Linking WinRel/gnumake.exe"
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert_at
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert_at
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert_at
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert_at
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_deleted_item
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_deleted_item
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_deleted_item
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_deleted_item
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_slot
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_slot
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_slot
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_slot
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_item
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_item
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_item
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_item
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_free
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_free
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_free
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_map
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_map
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_delete
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_delete
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_print_stats
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_print_stats
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_map_arg
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_dump
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_load
.\WinRel/gnumake.exe : fatal error LNK1120: 13 unresolved externals
"WinRel build failed"

C:\BUILD\xxx\make-3.80>

There’s a lot of unresolved symbols, I searched for "hash_insert_at" and found the definition for it in "hash.c". Looking through the build script it turns out that this file is not included in the build. I added the following two lines to "build_w32.bat" just after "implicit.c" is compiled.

cl.exe /nologo /MT /W3 /GX /YX /O2 /I . /I glob /I w32/include /D NDEBUG /D WINDOWS32 /D WIN32 /D _CONSOLE /D HAVE_CONFIG_H /FR.\WinRel/ /Fp.\WinRel/%make%.pch /Fo.\WinRel/ /c hash.c
echo WinRel\hash.obj >>link.rel

Running the build script again, and voilà…..

C:\BUILD\build\make-3.80>echo off
"Linking WinRel/gnumake.exe"
LINK : warning LNK4089: all references to "ADVAPI32.dll" discarded by /OPT:REF
"WinRel build succeeded!"

C:\BUILD\build\make-3.80>

YAY!!! It now compiles, and we have gnumake.exe.

         

Compiling OpenSSL 1.0.2d on 64-bit Cygwin

Out of the box I couldn’t get OpenSSL to compile on 64-bit Cygwin, below are the steps I used to successfully compile it.

  1. Use “tar xf openssl-1.0.2d.tar.gz” to decompress the source
  2. Add  options=”$options no-asm” to line 913 of config
  3. Run ./config
  4. Change -march=i486 to -march=x86-64
  5. Run make
  6. All done

Note that I had to use tar to decompress it as 7zip wreaked the symlinks used in there which caused some #includes to fail.

 

Building RTLSDR and GNURadio

I recently brought a USB DVB-T dongle that is based on the Realtek RTL2832U chip which, with RTLSDR, can be used as a really low cost SDR. This is because it can be setup to return the raw I/Q samples to the host PC.  Once you have the samples they can then be processed, I tend to use GNURadio for the processing.

There is a script available that downloads and installs everything, RTLSDR, GNURadio, and more. I recomend you try it first. I think there is also a new project from the GNURadio people that will automate building and installing. I had had some issues with building gr-audio when I wrote this so I use the manual method of building the code for now.

First of all make sure you have all of the dependencies GNURadio has, see http://gnuradio.org/doc/doxygen/build_guide.html for a list of them.

Once you have made sure you have all of the libraries that GNURadio needs you can build the code.

mkdir build
cd build
cmake ../
make && make test

sudo make install

This whole process can take a while to complete. On my work machine it took nearly 40mins! I had an issue building the gr-audio on my laptop that I still haven’t been able to resolve.

Next I built downloaded and extracted the RTLSDR source code. As with GNURadio we need to create a build directory and run cmake.

mkdir build
cmake ../
make

Then I ran a few commands to check that the code and the dongle worked correctly. The first tests to make sure samples are being returned at the correct rate and the second will receive and demodulate a WBFM station.

rtl_test
rtl_fm -f 97.1e6 -W -s 1000000 -r 48000 – | aplay -r 48k -f S16_LE

And that’s it! Now I’m going to play around with GRC and sound card I/O.