Managing Multiple Versions of Visual Studio

In my previous post, I described how to build an old version of GNU Make for Windows. While working on that I wanted to be able to test out different versions of Visual Studio to see if it builds successfully. Quickly switching between versions of Visual Studio was difficult so I created a batch file to help make it a lot easier.

This script takes a single argument that specifies which version of visual studio you want to set up and it then calls the appropriate vsvars32.bat file for that version of Visual Studio.

@echo off

if "%1" == "vs4" goto vs4
if "%1" == "vs6" goto vs6
if "%1" == "vs2003" goto vs2003

goto argerror

:vs4
pushd C:\msdev\bin
call vcvars32 x86
popd
goto done


:vs6
pushd C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio\VC98\Bin
call vcvars32
popd
goto done


:vs2003
pushd "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Common7\Tools\"
call vsvars32.bat
popd
goto done

:argerror
echo no Visual Studio version specified!
echo usage: setupenv [version]
echo    where version is one of the following: vs4, vs6, vs2003

:done

Compiling Old Versions of GNU Make for Windows

I needed to build GNU Make v3.8 for Windows, turns out that this is not straightforward and I needed to patch the build script to get it to correctly build. GNU Make 3.8 is a very old version of make, the release note dates back to 2002.

The first issue is it needs an old version of Visual C++, trying to build using VS 2019 you will get a lot of warnings about deprecated flags. Reading the README.W32 file it mentions MSVC 5.x and MSVC 6.x. I opted for MSVC 6 which I happened to have a copy of in a Windows 2000 VM.

The first issue we need to resolve is a linking error caused by a missing library.

Looking through the build output we can see that it cannot find "config.h", which prevents the "subproc.lib" library from compiling which subsequently causes the error we just saw.

C:\BUILD\xxx\make-3.80\w32\subproc>cl.exe /nologo /MT /W3 /GX /Z7 /YX /Od /I .. /I . /I ../include /I ../.. /D WIN32 /D
WINDOWS32 /D _DEBUG /D _WINDOWS /FR.\WinDebug/ /Fp.\WinDebug/subproc.pch /Fo.\WinDebug/ /c sub_proc.c
sub_proc.c
sub_proc.c(9) : fatal error C1083: Cannot open include file: 'config.h': No such file or directory

The reason that "config.h" does not exist is that the file is not created by the build script. The line in the build script that creates it doesn’t get run, this is because there is a “+” at the beginning of the line which stops this line from running.

set make=gnumake
+if not exist config.h copy config.h.W32 config.h
cd w32\subproc

Removing the plus at the beginning of the line allows "subproc.lib" to be compiled and linked, but we still get linker errors.

C:\BUILD\xxx\make-3.80>echo WinRel\pathstuff.obj  1>>link.rel

C:\BUILD\xxx\make-3.80>echo off
"Linking WinRel/gnumake.exe"
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_init
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert_at
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert_at
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert_at
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert_at
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_deleted_item
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_deleted_item
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_deleted_item
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_deleted_item
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_slot
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_slot
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_slot
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_slot
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_item
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_item
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_item
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_find_item
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_free
read.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_free
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_free
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_map
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_map
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_delete
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_delete
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_print_stats
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_print_stats
variable.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_map_arg
file.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_dump
dir.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_insert
function.obj : error LNK2001: unresolved external symbol _hash_load
.\WinRel/gnumake.exe : fatal error LNK1120: 13 unresolved externals
"WinRel build failed"

C:\BUILD\xxx\make-3.80>

There’s a lot of unresolved symbols, I searched for "hash_insert_at" and found the definition for it in "hash.c". Looking through the build script it turns out that this file is not included in the build. I added the following two lines to "build_w32.bat" just after "implicit.c" is compiled.

cl.exe /nologo /MT /W3 /GX /YX /O2 /I . /I glob /I w32/include /D NDEBUG /D WINDOWS32 /D WIN32 /D _CONSOLE /D HAVE_CONFIG_H /FR.\WinRel/ /Fp.\WinRel/%make%.pch /Fo.\WinRel/ /c hash.c
echo WinRel\hash.obj >>link.rel

Running the build script again, and voilà…..

C:\BUILD\build\make-3.80>echo off
"Linking WinRel/gnumake.exe"
LINK : warning LNK4089: all references to "ADVAPI32.dll" discarded by /OPT:REF
"WinRel build succeeded!"

C:\BUILD\build\make-3.80>

YAY!!! It now compiles, and we have gnumake.exe.

Compiling OpenSSL 1.0.2d on 64-bit Cygwin

Out of the box I couldn’t get OpenSSL to compile on 64-bit Cygwin, below are the steps I used to successfully compile it.

  1. Use “tar xf openssl-1.0.2d.tar.gz” to decompress the source
  2. Add  options=”$options no-asm” to line 913 of config
  3. Run ./config
  4. Change -march=i486 to -march=x86-64
  5. Run make
  6. All done

Note that I had to use tar to decompress it as 7zip wreaked the symlinks used in there which caused some #includes to fail.

Building RTLSDR and GNURadio

I recently brought a USB DVB-T dongle that is based on the Realtek RTL2832U chip which, with RTLSDR, can be used as a really low cost SDR. This is because it can be setup to return the raw I/Q samples to the host PC.  Once you have the samples they can then be processed, I tend to use GNURadio for the processing.

There is a script available that downloads and installs everything, RTLSDR, GNURadio, and more. I recomend you try it first. I think there is also a new project from the GNURadio people that will automate building and installing. I had had some issues with building gr-audio when I wrote this so I use the manual method of building the code for now.

First of all make sure you have all of the dependencies GNURadio has, see http://gnuradio.org/doc/doxygen/build_guide.html for a list of them.

Once you have made sure you have all of the libraries that GNURadio needs you can build the code.

mkdir build
cd build
cmake ../
make && make test

sudo make install

This whole process can take a while to complete. On my work machine it took nearly 40mins! I had an issue building the gr-audio on my laptop that I still haven’t been able to resolve.

Next I built downloaded and extracted the RTLSDR source code. As with GNURadio we need to create a build directory and run cmake.

mkdir build
cmake ../
make

Then I ran a few commands to check that the code and the dongle worked correctly. The first tests to make sure samples are being returned at the correct rate and the second will receive and demodulate a WBFM station.

rtl_test
rtl_fm -f 97.1e6 -W -s 1000000 -r 48000 – | aplay -r 48k -f S16_LE

And that’s it! Now I’m going to play around with GRC and sound card I/O.